México: el proyecto “Archivos de la Represión”

El proyecto “Archivos de la Represión” es un esfuerzo de la sociedad civil que tiene como objetivo contribuir al derecho a la verdad y memoria del periodo de represión y violencia sistemática por parte del Estado entre 1950-1980 en México. El acervo consta de 310, 000 documentos oficiales fotografiados, cuyos originales se encuentran en el Archivo General de la Nación. Dicha colección fue donada por la Ex Comisión de la Verdad (COMVERDAD) de Guerrero a ARTÍCULO 19.

Los documentos aquí preservados fueron en su mayoría producidos por las siguientes agencias gubernamentales: Dirección Federal de Seguridad (DFS), Dirección General de Investigaciones Políticas y Sociales (DGIPS), Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional y otras organizaciones policiacas. Las fotografías de los documentos fueron tomadas en las instalaciones del Archivo General de la Nación durante los periodos en que tanto la Fiscalía Especial para los Movimientos Sociales y Políticos del Pasado (FEMOSPP) como La Comisión de la Verdad del Estado de Guerrero (COMVERDAD) llevaban a cabo sus respectivas investigaciones.

Las fechas de producción abarcan la década de los años 50 a los 80 del siglo XX, en las cuales se contextualiza una de las etapas de represión por parte del Estado mexicano (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://archivosdelarepresion.org

Acción Democrática en nuestros siglos XX y XXI

El próximo 13 de septiembre, Acción Democrática, el más relevante partido político de la Venezuela moderna, cumplirá 80 años. Su irrupción, en 1941, marca el inicio de una época, cuya proyección, lo queramos o no, alcanza a nuestro tiempo. Ha sido, no solo una marca política: también un factor decisivo -no el único, como es obvio- en el proceso de construcción de ese complejo y por momentos desconcertante edificio, que es la cultura política venezolana.

Jo-ann Peña Angulo coordina el grupo de investigación Ideas en Libertad. Es investigadora y profesora de la Escuela de Historia de la Universidad de Los Andes, así como Coordinadora de la Cátedra de Estudios sobre el Holocausto Hillo Ostfeld (ULA). Coordinó este dossier de Papel Literario, con dos entregas correspondientes al 22 y 29 de agosto. Los textos pueden leerse en el sitio web de Papel Literario, pero también estarán disponibles en Ideas en Libertad.

 

 

 

 

 

Fidel Castro, el último rey católico

 

El historiador italiano Loris Zanatta rastrea la raíz religiosa y moral de los discursos evangelizadores del líder cubano, su iconografía oficial y su glorificación de los pobres

Norma Morandini, 12 de marzo de 2021 Babelia – El País

Autor de varios libros sobre lo que más ha estudiado y conoce, el peronismo y el nacionalismo católico, la religión y la fe popular como sustento ideológico de los caudillos políticos, Zanatta encara una biografía ciclópea sobre una de las figuras ineludibles del siglo XX, narrada ya ampliamente y a la que le ha dedicado años de estudio. Una ventaja, si se piensa que la materia prima del historiador son las fuentes y en el caso de Fidel Castro y la revolución cubana, estas llenan bibliotecas. Sin embargo, faltan las mas importantes, las cubanas, cerradas a cal y canto a no ser para investigadores que refuercen el mito.

Sin subyugarse con el carisma del personaje, “el primer historiador de sí mismo”, sobre la novedad anticipada en el titulo Loris Zanatta explica que no debiera extrañar que “el monarca comunista del siglo XX sea heredero del ideal de los monarcas del pasado: creció en una isla que fue España durante siglos, en un ambiente familiar y social hispánico y católico”, educado por sacerdotes en los principios del comunitarismo de las misiones jesuitas. Un legado que impregnó su universo moral, la salvación de las almas por la evangelización ideológica y el soplo creador del “hombre nuevo” por la acción y la disciplina revolucionaria, la sociedad sin clases del comunismo y la redención del pueblo elegido por el mesías-líder salvador. Las analogías entre la sociedad castrista y aquellas cristianas de la colonia surgen de un minucioso y atractivo recorrido por la vida de Fidel Castro y la sociedad cubana… (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://elpais.com/babelia/2021-03-11/fidel-castro-el-ultimo-rey-catolico.html?fbclid=IwAR2rTo4u3xHuLOiRJBilpgI78mjX2yTapZvuTVLjXhTJf7ZUwnO2alwf_II

National Security Archive – Che Guevara and the CIA in the Mountains of Bolivia

Che Guevara after his execution on October 9, 1967, surrounded by Bolivian soldiers. (Source: unknown)
Argentine-born Revolutionary Executed 53 Years Ago

Declassified Records Describe Intense U.S. Tracking of Guevara’s Movements, Initial Doubts about His Death, and Hopes that His Violent Demise Would Discourage Revolutionaries in Latin America


Washington, DC, October 9, 2020 – Fifty-three years ago, at 1:15 p.m. on October 9, 1967, Argentine-born revolutionary Ernesto “Che” Guevara was executed in the hills of Bolivia after being captured by a U.S.-trained Bolivian military battalion. A CIA operative, Felix Rodriguez, was present. U.S. officials had been tracking Guevara’s whereabouts ever since he disappeared from public view in Cuba in 1965. The highest White House officials were intensely interested in confirming his death, then using it to undermine leftist revolutionary movements in Latin America, as a selection of White House and CIA documents posted today by the National Security Archive describes.

President Lyndon Johnson himself received regular updates on Guevara’s whereabouts, the record shows, reflecting continuing, deep concerns over Cuban-inspired revolutionary activity in the region.  Today’s posting features National Security Council memos, CIA field reports, and other documents that follow several strands of the story, from Guevara’s ill-fated campaign in Bolivia, to La Paz’s request for U.S. help in creating a “hunter-killer” team to “ferret out guerrillas,” to reports of Che’s last conversation and execution (provided by an under-cover CIA officer at the scene), to the intensive efforts of the United States to mount a posthumous propaganda campaign based on Guevara’s diary and other captured records.  In a number of cases the documents have previously been released but are now available with fewer security redactions.

The materials are selections from the recent digitized documentary compilation, “CIA Covert Operations III: From Kennedy to Nixon, 1961-1974,” part of the Digital National Security Archive series published by ProQuest.  It is the third in an ongoing series edited by John Prados and focuses on CIA decision making and operations in the Caribbean, South America, Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, and elsewhere (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/cuba-intelligence/2020-10-09/che-guevara-cia-mountains-bolivia?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=718a1bb9-5db5-42bf-91cf-6435edb0c1ee

National security Archive – «GUILTY»: Justice for the Jesuits in El Salvador

Spanish Court holds Col. Montano Accountable for Jesuit Massacre

National Security Archive Hails Verdict in Jesuit Case

Universal Jurisdiction Used to Convict Salvadoran Officer of State Terror

Sep 11, 2020 Update

Washington D.C., September 11, 2020 – In a highly-anticipated, and long-awaited ruling, the National Court of Spain today convicted a retired Salvadoran military colonel for acts of state terrorism and murder in the assassination of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her teenaged daughter more than thirty years ago.  The tribunal, presided by lead judge José Antonio Mora Alarcón, found retired Colonel Inocente Orlando Montano “guilty … of five counts of murder of a terrorist nature.”

The historic judgement marks the culmination of decades of work by the families of the victims, the Jesuit community, lawyers, experts, scholars, eyewitnesses, and human rights organizations in the United States and in El Salvador to bring to justice those responsible for the shocking crimes committed on the morning of November 16, 1989 (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/human-rights/2020-09-11/gulty-justice-for-the-jesuits-el-salvador?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=5d01b36c-0d85-4342-9797-33b622bfc30e

“Allende Wins”

Chile Marks 50th Anniversary of Salvador Allende’s Election

Declassified Records Capture U.S. Reaction to First Free Election of a Socialist Leader 

September 4, 1970, Historic Vote Prompted Nixon/Kissinger Regime Change Effort

National Security Archives – Washington D.C., September 4, 2020 – “Chile voted calmly to have a Marxist-Leninist state, the first nation in the world to make this choice freely and knowingly,” U.S. Ambassador Edward Korry dramatically reported to Washington in a cable titled “Allende Wins” on September 4, 1970. “[W]e have suffered a grievous defeat; the consequences will be domestic and international; the repercussions will have immediate impact in some lands and delayed effect in others.”

On the 50th anniversary of the history-changing election of Salvador Allende in Chile, the National Security Archive today posted a selection of previously declassified documents recording the reaction of U.S. officials to the first democratic election of a Socialist leader in Latin America, or elsewhere. Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy makers had dedicated tens of millions of dollars in overt aid and covert actions to preventing the popular head of the Chilean Socialist party from being elected. Allende’s victory set in motion a furious effort, ordered by President Nixon, supervised by his national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, and implemented by the CIA, to destabilize Chile and undermine Allende’s ability to govern—an effort that set the stage for the September 11, 1973 military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/chile/2020-09-04/allende-wins?eType=EmailBlastContent&eId=4428305b-f207-4f9a-96c0-0c7690e9bb7e

 
Published: Sep 4, 2020
Briefing Book #719

Edited by Peter Kornbluh

For more information, contact:
 nsarchiv@gwu.edu

El Comunismo en América Latina. Experiencias militantes, intelectuales y transnacionales (1917-1955)

Acerca de: Patricio Herrera González (coord.), El Comunismo en América Latina. Experiencias militantes, intelectuales y transnacionales (1917-1955), Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, 2017, 461 p.

Reseña publicada en Caravelle, 11/2019.

Dans une conjoncture mondialisée où la dénonciation du communisme a cédé le pas à celle des populismes, y compris et surtout chez des écrivains reconnus et autrefois tentés par l’arène politique, il n’est pas inutile de revenir sur des trajectoires militantes et intellectuelles qui ont marqué le devenir de l’Amérique latine et y ont inspiré dans une certaine mesure des expériences plus récentes de gouvernement. L’ouverture des archives concernées, en particulier de l’Internationale communiste (Komintern), mais également de centres de documentation (en Argentine ou au Mexique) ainsi que la mise en place de réseaux de recherche ont constitué de fait un tremplin en vue de cette réécriture, fût-elle engagée, de cette histoire du xxe siècle.

Le propos de cet ouvrage à plusieurs mains, issu d’un séminaire international réalisé en 2015 à Santiago dans le cadre du centenaire de la Révolution russe est en lui-même un défi, comme le souligne Barry Carr dans son introduction. Ecrire l’histoire des communismes en Amérique latine relève en effet à la fois du bilan historiographique voire des bilans historiographiques, de la découverte d’archives nouvelles et de la prise en compte de circulations intellectuelles qui dépassent très largement le continent lui-même : en d’autres termes, de ce qu’il reste à connaître d’une histoire latino-américaine marquée du sceau d’un projet idéologique qui a influencé bien d’autres domaines d’étude et de recherche relevant de l’histoire sociale et politique.

Autrefois occultée par les problématiques de la Guerre froide et les débats internes aux gauches latino-américaines, et dans une certaine mesure les productions apologétiques et militantes au profit des partis nationaux, la période choisie se trouve être un temps de diffusion de « sensibilités idéologiques de gauche » dans la région (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://journals.openedition.org/caravelle/4078

Imminent Threat to Guatemala’s Historical Archive of the National Police

Published: May 30, 2019 – Update for Guatemala Police Archive under Threat posting

Morales Government Tightens Grip on Massive Human Rights Records Trove 

Washington, D.C., May 30, 2019– The National Security Archive joins our international and Guatemalan colleagues in calling for the protection of the Historical Archive of the National Police (AHPN) of Guatemala, which faces new threats to its independence and to public access to its holdings.

In a press conference on Monday, May 27, Interior Minister Enrique Degenhart signaled his intent to assert his agency’s control of the AHPN including the prospect of new restrictions on access to the archived police records and possible legal action against “foreign institutions” holding digitized copies of the documents. Degenhart made his statements as a crucial deadline approached to renew an agreement that for a decade has kept the archive under the authority of the Ministry of Culture and Sports. The agreement now appears to be in jeopardy.

The hollowing out of the AHPN is taking place at a time when justice and human rights initiatives are broadly under siege in Guatemala and follows months of uncertainty for the celebrated human rights archive, which has been institutionally adrift since its long-time director, Gustavo Meoño Brenner, was abruptly dismissed in August 2018.

Since its discovery in 2005, the AHPN has played a central role in Guatemala’s attempts to reckon with its bloody past. Its records of more than a century of the history of the former National Police have been relied upon by families of the disappeared, scholars, and prosecutors.  The institution has become a model across Latin America and around the world for the rescue and preservation of vital historical records (…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/news/guatemala/2019-05-30/imminent-threat-guatemalas-historical-archive-national-police-ahpn

Trump Administration Turns Over Massive Collection of Intelligence Records on Human Rights and Argentina

National Security Archive : Apr 12, 2019 Briefing Book #669 – Edited by Carlos Osorio and Peter Kornbluh

47,000 Pages of CIA, FBI, NSC, DOD and State Dept. Records Touted as “Largest” Government-to-Government Transfer of Declassified Documentation

Documents Spotlight Buenos Aires Base for International Death Squad Operations sponsored by Condor States; Record Ruthless Repression by Argentine Security Forces during Military Dictatorship, 1976-1983

National Security Archive Commends Completion of U.S. Government’s Special Argentina Project as ‘Model of Declassification Diplomacy’ and Major Contribution to the Cause of Human Rights and History

Washington D.C., April 12, 2019 –In late May 1976, the secret police chieftains of six Southern Cone military regimes gathered at a clandestine summit in Santiago, Chile, to create a “new unit, which was given the code name ‘Teseo,’”—a reference to Theseus, the mythical Greek King of the Athenians and heroic slayer of the Minotaur, among other enemies. The mission of “Teseo” was to “conduct physical attacks against subversive targets” abroad, particularly militant Latin American leftists in Europe, according to formerly secret CIA intelligence reports turned over today to Argentina by the U.S. government, and posted for the first time by the nongovernmental National Security Archive.

The «Teseo» program represented a new initiative under «Operation Condor»–the clandestine collaboration of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil to strike at their opposition in the Southern Cone and beyond.  At the time, the CIA also managed to obtain the “text of the agreement by Condor countries regulating their operations against subversive targets”—a comprehensive planning paper on financing, staffing, logistics, training, and selection of targets that reveals both the banal and dramatic details of organizing and implementing Condor’s “Teseo” death squad operations. The “Teseo” operations base would be located “at Condor 1 (Argentina).”  

(…)

Para seguir leyendo: https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/southern-cone/2019-04-12/trump-administration-turns-over-massive-collection-intelligence-records-human-rights-argentina

Luis Posada Carriles, CIA-created «Frankenstein» en National Security Archive

Luis Posada Carriles, CIA-created «Frankenstein», Dies at 90

Washington, D.C., May 23, 2018 – CIA-trained Cuban exile and suspect in the 1976 Cuban jetliner bombing that killed all 73 people on board, Luis Posada Carriles, has died at the age of 90.

The National Security Archive’s Cuba Project Director Peter Kornbluh has fought for the release of U.S. documents to shed light on Carriles’s activities and provide historical evidence for his victims for over a decade. Kornbluh said of Carriles and his U.S.-backing, «The CIA created and unleashed a Frankenstein

Below is a selection of the declassified record on Carriles and his crimes:

Visit the Archive’s Cuba Project page for more information.

https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/news/cuba/2018-05-23/luis-posada-carriles-cia-created-frankenstein-dies-90

También de interés en Cubaencuentro (24/05/2018): Posada o el pasado

Washington utilizó a Posada Carriles para diversas actividades encubiertas, en una época en que medios violentos, hoy catalogados de terroristas, no se sancionaban como en la actualidad (…)