CHILE’S COUP at 50 NSA – Countdown Toward a CoupCHILE’S COUP at 50 NSA –

U.S. Officials: “Our Policy on Allende Worked Very Well”
Kissinger joked that “the President is worried that we might want to send someone to Allende’s funeral. I said I did not believe we were considering that.”  
The Documented U.S. Role in the Months, Days and Hours Before the Overthrow Of Allende

Briefing Book #

Edited by Peter Kornbluh

September 8, 2023, Washington D.C. “In the Eisenhower period, we would be heroes,” Henry Kissinger told President Richard Nixon several days after the overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile, lamenting that they would not receive credit in the press for this Cold War accomplishment. Fifty years later, as Chileans and the world commemorate the anniversary of the U.S.-backed military takeover that brought General Augusto Pinochet to power, a fierce debate over the extent of the U.S. contribution to the coup continues. On September 6, a leading Chilean television channel, Chilevision, broadcast a major documentary film titled “Operation Chile: Top Secret,” featuring dozens of U.S. declassified records obtained by the National Security Archive’s Chile Documentation Project, including recently obtained documents published in the new Chilean edition of Archive analyst Peter Kornbluh’s book, “Pinochet Desclasificado.”

On the eve of the 50th anniversary, the Archive is posting an edited section of Kornbluh’s book—The Pinochet File—on the “Countdown Toward the Coup.” The essay records U.S. government actions, internal debates and policy deliberations as conditions for the coup evolved between March and September 1973. “This is an intricate, complicated and extraordinarily revealing history,” Kornbluh said, “that holds many lessons on the secret abuses of U.S. power and the danger of dictatorship over democracy for today’s world community.” (…)

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Una novedad NSA: Guacamaya Leaks and the Ayotzinapa Case

Military Surveilled Ayotzinapa School for Years Before Disappearance of 43 Students. Intelligence Reports Reveal Constant Exchange of Messages During Night of Attacks in Iguala. Mexican Military Continues to Deny Investigators Complete Access to Archives

Briefing Book #823 - Edited by Kate Doyle and Claire Dorfman - Additional research by Carlos Osorio

Washington, D.C., March 10, 2023 – Years before 43 young men from the Ayotzinapa teachers’ college were attacked and forcibly disappeared in Iguala, Guerrero, the Mexican military had the school under surveillance and considered its students to be subversives, according to internal communications and documents from the Mexican armed forces published today by the National Security Archive.

The military records also reveal that Mexico’s National Defense Ministry worked to shield the institution from civilian scrutiny during the investigation into the disappearance of the 43 students; that military intelligence routinely lumped together dangerous drug traffickers and parents of the missing students in the same reports on “conflict” in Mexico; and that Mexico’s Defense Secretary oversaw a propaganda campaign to discredit the parents, their lawyers, and a group of experts assigned to assist in the case by a United Nations commission.

The 20 documents posted by the Archive today are among an estimated four million emails and records that were stolen from the Mexican Defense Ministry (Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional—Sedena) by an anonymous collective of hackers known as “Guacamaya.” Following Guacamaya’s leak of the massive data set in late September 2022, journalists in Mexico and elsewhere have used the six terabytes of information to publish a steady stream of breaking-news stories about diverse topics, including:

As part of the National Security Archive’s long-term investigative project on the Ayotzinapa case (and the podcast we co-produced with Reveal from the Center for Investigative Reporting), the Archive has spent months examining the data set for references to the Ayotzinapa School, the night of the attacks in Iguala, the disappearance of the students, and the investigations that followed. Today’s posting is an initial selection of documents from this data set intended to give our readers a sense of what we are learning about the Mexican military’s internal communications related to Ayotzinapa. (…)

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Trump Administration Turns Over Massive Collection of Intelligence Records on Human Rights and Argentina

National Security Archive : Apr 12, 2019 Briefing Book #669 – Edited by Carlos Osorio and Peter Kornbluh

47,000 Pages of CIA, FBI, NSC, DOD and State Dept. Records Touted as “Largest” Government-to-Government Transfer of Declassified Documentation

Documents Spotlight Buenos Aires Base for International Death Squad Operations sponsored by Condor States; Record Ruthless Repression by Argentine Security Forces during Military Dictatorship, 1976-1983

National Security Archive Commends Completion of U.S. Government’s Special Argentina Project as ‘Model of Declassification Diplomacy’ and Major Contribution to the Cause of Human Rights and History

Washington D.C., April 12, 2019 –In late May 1976, the secret police chieftains of six Southern Cone military regimes gathered at a clandestine summit in Santiago, Chile, to create a “new unit, which was given the code name ‘Teseo,’”—a reference to Theseus, the mythical Greek King of the Athenians and heroic slayer of the Minotaur, among other enemies. The mission of “Teseo” was to “conduct physical attacks against subversive targets” abroad, particularly militant Latin American leftists in Europe, according to formerly secret CIA intelligence reports turned over today to Argentina by the U.S. government, and posted for the first time by the nongovernmental National Security Archive.

The “Teseo” program represented a new initiative under “Operation Condor”–the clandestine collaboration of Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil to strike at their opposition in the Southern Cone and beyond.  At the time, the CIA also managed to obtain the “text of the agreement by Condor countries regulating their operations against subversive targets”—a comprehensive planning paper on financing, staffing, logistics, training, and selection of targets that reveals both the banal and dramatic details of organizing and implementing Condor’s “Teseo” death squad operations. The “Teseo” operations base would be located “at Condor 1 (Argentina).”  


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Declassification Diplomacy: Trump Administration to Turn Over Trove of Declassified Records to Argentina on Human Rights Violations Committed During Military Dictatorship

National Security Archive Hails Forthcoming Transfer of Formerly Secret Intelligence Records National Security Archive Hails Forthcoming Transfer of Formerly Secret Intelligence Records

Documents like this one pertaining to the fate of Ana Maria Pérez will be among those in the upcoming release. Photo courtesy of Berta Elvira Sanchez.

Washington D.C., March 24, 2019– On the 43rd anniversary of the military coup in Argentina, the Argentine government of Mauricio Macri has announced that the Trump Administration will provide “the largest delivery to another [nation] of declassified documents in volume and file quality” relating to human rights abuses committed during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983. 

The official transfer of the records is planned for mid-April during a visit by Argentina’s minister of justice, Germán Garavano, to Washington D.C. The turnover of formerly secret U.S. intelligence records—the collection will include CIA, FBI, NSC, and Defense Intelligence Agency documents—will culminate a special U.S. government declassification project authorized three years ago today by then-President Barack Obama during a visit to Buenos Aires, and implemented by the Trump administration.

In support of the Argentina declassification project, the National Security Archive hailed the forthcoming documents transfer. “We praise the Trump administration as well as President Macri for their concrete contribution to the cause of truth and human rights,” said Carlos Osorio, Director of the National Security Archive’s Southern Cone Documentation Project.

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Itinerarios de la historia del tiempo presente … con una mirada hacia América Latina

De la historia del tiempo presente, campo de investigación asentado ahora en una corriente historiográfica reconocida, hay que recordar en primer término que se derivó no sólo de una reflexión historiográfica y luego epistemológica sino también de una verdadera batalla que se libró con especial énfasis en los años 1980, a raíz de la creación del Instituto de historia del tiempo presente (IHTP) y de una coyuntura historiográfica. Alcanzó legitimidad en el campo de la historia y de las Ciencias humanas y sociales y se desarrolló incluso fuera de sus fronteras iniciales, relacionada con otra aprensión semántica de lo contemporáneo y de la “contemporaneidad” (…)

Mayores coincidencias y referencias comunes podríamos encontrar sin embargo aunque no con absoluta certeza entre la historia del presente, la historia viva, la historia reciente o incluso con la historia actual, como se les quiera llamar en el mundo hispánico. Ahora bien, tampoco habría que pasar por alto una característica que, junto a la imprescindible distancia crítica respecto al objeto de estudio, se ha venido afianzando a lo largo de las últimas décadas, tanto en Francia desde los inicios del género como en el ámbito hispánico, especialmente en América Latina. El interés por la historia del tiempo presente se ubica en efecto dentro de una larga trayectoria de compromiso a favor de la democracia (ejemplificada en el “Nunca más” de los países del Cono Sur), de salida de dictaduras, de conflictos si no de guerra, como fue el caso en su país de origen, Francia, de remembranza de un “pasado que no pasa”/haunting past, de un pasado traumático y de la “última catástrofe” incluso (ambas expresiones acuñadas por Henry Rousso) si centramos la perspectiva en un pasado de lo más reciente, violento y traumático como lo ha sido el naciente siglo XXI. (…)

Tal es el itinerario que quisiéramos abordar en esta síntesis, desde el momento fundacional hasta la coyuntura historiográfica de hoy. Ésta se caracteriza en efecto por una ampliación inédita del campo de investigación, tanto en lo que se refiere a su objeto de estudio, por la diversificación del mismo respecto a las secuencias históricas y a los espacios estudiados, como por la difusión de sus resultados en el marco de las “sociedades de memoria” (de acuerdo con Ricardo García Carcel) de hoy. Además, esta difusión corre parejas con un insoslayable fenómeno sobradamente amplificado por las ya no tan “nuevas tecnologías de la información” y sus redes sociales:  la “globalización de la memoria”, de esta memoria convertida tan frecuentemente en reto político y crisol de emociones instrumentalizadas si no ideologizadas, cuando “nuestra tarea debe ser que la justa memoria (expresión forjada por Paul Ricœur) sea tanto un factor de justicia como un factor que nos libere para que no quedemos presos del pasado” (…)

Para seguir leyendo:  “Itinerarios de la historia del tiempo presente. Del IHTP de la post-guerra a la “globalización de la memoria””, Historiografía, Universidad de Zaragoza, n°16 (julio-diciembre), 2018

Le prisme des émotions dans l’histoire du temps présent – Amérique latine Espagne

« L’utilité de toutes les passions ne consiste qu’en ce qu’elles fortifient et font durer en l’âme des pensées, lesquelles il est bon qu’elle conserve, et qui pourraient, sans cela, en être effacées »[1]. Mémoire et émotions s’égrainent d’une seule main, ce qui favorise certes le risque d’une histoire « compassionnelle », le péché d’empathie avec le témoin, mais ce qui fait aussi que pour l’historien du temps présent les émotions sont la « réalité saisissable »[2] d’une histoire incarnée. En effet, l’expression des affects à travers les manifestations du corps n’accompagnent pas seulement l’évocation du passé dont elles conservent la trace. Elles le convoquent en une intériorisation du souvenir qui confère une proximité à l’événement inscrit dans le passé. Elles colorent le prisme à travers lequel les agents du souvenir, chercheurs et porteurs de mémoire mêlés, construisent dans le présent leur relation au passé dans un espace public. Car à la croisée des enjeux de mémoire convergent « un passé qui ne passe pas »[3] et un présent qui l’interroge à l’aune de ses propres inquiétudes[4]. Lorsque dans les années 2000 la société espagnole se divise sur la question des fosses de la guerre civile et de l’inertie d’une symbolique franquiste dans la cité[5] ; lorsque les lieux et les moments commémoratifs de la guerre du Sentier Lumineux engendrent de nouvelles violences au Pérou ; lorsque les organisations et les élites amérindiennes s’organisent pour l’écriture d’une contre-histoire en Bolivie, au Chili, en Équateur ou que le régime chaviste au Venezuela transforme la figure de Simon Bolívar et le culte historique consensuel en un dogme politique, et que la Commission Vérité et Justice au Paraguay engage une véritable ingénieurie de l’histoire pour changer radicalement le rapport que la société entretient avec son passé autoritaire, les souvenirs mettent les corps en mouvement en raison certes des représentations du passé qui les habitent, mais en raison aussi de leur circulation dans le présent au regard que les uns et les autres se font des possibles à venir.


Cette immédiation entre le passé et le présent, dont les émotions constituent le prisme sensible, est l’objet de notre recherche. Le monde hispanique (Amérique latine et Espagne), au-delà des circulations transnationales qui intègrent les « passés à vif » à l’échelle de cette aire culturelle[10], est un laboratoire privilégié pour observer à travers les jeux d’acteurs la concurrence entre régimes d’historicité. La prégnance des régimes héroïques enracinés dans le XIXe siècle des fondateurs de la patrie et de la construction de l’État-national ainsi que dans les résistances indigènes à la conquête et sa martyrologie chrétienne reste forte, tandis qu’elle se heurte à la montée en puissance du temps des victimes et des reconfigurations présentistes mondialisés[11].


Le rapport que les sociétés entretiennent avec leur passé n’est pas seulement le fruit de l’invention d’une tradition, de pratiques mnémoniques et d’une discipline de recherche, il participe également de l’intuition. Elle prend forme en Amérique latine dans les tensions durables entre des « citadelles historiographiques » et les partisans d’une « contre-histoire », sans cesse revendiquée et renouvelée, de révisionnismes récurrents qui vont bien au-delà des simples conflits de mémoire. Pour beaucoup il s’agit de défendre une identité, dont l’estime de soi est enchâssée dans une représentation du passé qui remonte fréquemment à l’Indépendance (1810-1811), dont le Bicentenaire a été très opportunément célébré et récupéré par les gouvernements en place.


[1]. Descartes R., Les Passions de l’Âme, dans Œuvres et lettres (texte présenté par André Bridoux), Paris, Gallimard/Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1970, p. 730 [1649].

[2]. Boquet D. et P. Nagy, « Une histoire des émotions incarnées », Médiévales, n° 61, 2011, p. 5-24.

[3]. Selon la formule de Conan É. et H. Rousso, Vichy, un passé qui ne passé pas, Paris, Gallimard, 1996.

[4]. Capdevila L. et F. Langue (dir.), Entre mémoire collective et histoire officielle. L’histoire du temps présent en Amérique Latine, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2009.

[5]. Segura A., A. Mayayo, Q. Solé (éd.), Fosses comunes i simbologia franquista: ponències de les jornades, Barcelona, 9 i 10 d’octubre 2008, Catarroja, Editorial Afers, 2009.

[6]. Descartes R., Les Passions de l’Âme, op.cit, p. 715.

[7]. Camps V., El gobierno de las emociones, Barcelona, Herder Editorial, 2011.

[8]. Farge A., Effusion et tourment. Le récit des corps. Histoire du peuple au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. 15.

[9]. Berthier N., Sanchez-Biosca V., Retóricas del miedo. Imágenes de la Guerra Civil española, Madrid, Casa de Velázquez, 2012.

[10]. Pérotin-Dumon A. (dir.), Historizar el pasado vivo en América latina,

[11]. Hartog F., Régimes d’historicité. Présentisme et expériences du temps, Paris, Seuil, 2003 ; Fassin D. et R. Rechtman, L’empire du traumatisme. Enquête sur la condition de victime, Paris, Flammarion, 2007 ; Ferro M., Le ressentiment dans l’histoire. Comprendre notre temps, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2007.

[12]. Capdevila L. et F. Langue (dir.), Entre mémoire collective et histoire officielle. op.cit.

INTRODUCTION  à Luc Capdevila, Frédérique Langue (coords.), Le passé des émotions. D’une histoire à vif Amérique Latine et Espagne, Rennes, PUR, 2014.

Pour accéder au texte complet, à la table des matières, aux présentations ouvrage et auteurs

Brazil Truth Commission Releases Report

Comissao Nacional da Verdade/Brazil Truth Commission Releases Report

brasil1Washington, DC, December 11, 2014 — Almost thirty years after the end of Brazil’s military dictatorship, the Comissao Nacional da Verdade [National Truth Commission] today released its long awaited report on human rights violations by the security forces between 1964 and 1985. The report, which took two-and-a-half years to complete and totals over 1000 pages, represents the first formal attempt by Brazil as a nation to record its repressive past and provide a detailed accounting of the system of repression, of the victims of human rights violations, as well as the identities of those who committed those crimes.
In contrast to the U.S. Senate report on torture released yesterday in Washington which redacted even the pseudonyms of CIA personnel who engaged in torture, the Brazilian report actually identifies over 375 perpetrators of human rights crimes by name.
The report contains detailed chapters on the structure and methods of the repression during the military era, including targeted violence against women and children. The commission identified over 400 individuals killed by the military, many of them “disappeared” as the military sought to hide its abuses. During its investigation, the Commission located and identified the remains of 33 of the disappeared; some 200 other victims remain missing.
The report also sheds significant light on Brazil’s role in the cross-border regional repression known as Operation Condor. In a chapter titled “International Connections: From Repressive Alliances in the Southern Cone to Operation Condor,” the Commission report details Brazil’s military ties to the coup in Chile, and support for the Pinochet regime, as well as identifies Argentine citizens captured and killed in Brazil as part of a Condor collaboration between the Southern Cone military regimes.
This report opens a Pandora’s box of historical and legal accountability for Brazilians. For now it provides a verdict of history, but eventually the evidence compiled by the commission’s investigation could lead to a judicial accounting. “The Truth Commission’s final report is a major step for human rights in Brazil,” according to Brown University scholar, James Green, “and the pursuit of justice for the victims of the state’s terror.” (…)

Movimientos armados en México. Fuentes en línea

Movimientos armados en México. Recursos de información desde El Colegio de México
Este sitio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a integrar y difundir recursos de información sobre la violencia política en América Latina y el Caribe.
La colección que aquí se incluye, se refiere a la guerrilla y grupos armados mexicanos, consta de más de 450 documentos (entre otros, volantes, comunicados, notas de prensa, cartas, suplementos, planes y reglamentos) pertenecientes a un periodo de cuarenta y cinco años (de 1960 hasta 2005 entre aquellos que tienen una fecha que permite identificarlos).
Principal recopiladora fue la Profesora Verónica Oikión, de El Colegio de Michoacán. Su trabajo complementado con materiales obtenidos durante la investigación que dio origen a la obra La transición en México. Una historia documental 1910-2010 de Sergio Aguayo Quezada (Fondo de Cultura Económica y El Colegio de México, 2010).
Los documentos incluidos en el sitio forman parte de las colecciones del Archivo General de la Nación y de Mandeville Special Collections Library University of California San Diego Armed Revolutionary Organizations of Mexico.
Información en:

The British Library : ‘Faces drawn in the sand’: a rescue project of Native Peoples’ photographs stored at the Museum of La Plata, Argentina

The Endangered Archives Programme at the British Library is pleased to announce the addition of a new catalogue to its web pages. The catalogue gives details of material copied by the project EAP207: Faces drawn in the sand’: a rescue project of Native Peoples‘ photographs stored at the Museum of La Plata, Argentina – major project.
The collections stored at La Plata Museum provide a picture of pre-industrial societies of a wide area of South America during the late 19th – early 20th centuries. They include photographs on paper, albumens, and glass plate negatives. During the previous pilot project they were relocated to Archivo Histórico (Museo de La Plata) and are currently kept in good climatic conditions. The albums Boggiani, Bonaparte (Old and New World), and the Bolivian Collection represent objects used by ethnologists as visual data of distant Indian tribes. The Moreno Album contains images of F. P. Moreno’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, established in 1878. This album along with Calchaquí Album were presented at the Paris World Exhibition of 1878 and both contain very rare images (…)
La Plata Museum, Argentina , was established in 1884, dedicated to the study of American Man. It was the first institution of this kind in South America, resulting from the donation of several anthropological and archaeological collections gathered in the Argentinean interior during the 1870s. This Museum envisioned a continental scope: to achieve its goals it organised different strategies to collect objects that encompassed societies that, by those years, were perceived to be in the process of extinction. In the late 1870s and 1880s several campaigns against Native peoples from Patagonia and Chaco were carried out as governmental or private initiatives in order to erase savagery from the lands to be included into the market economy. Besides, indigenous peoples from Northwestern Argentina were incorporated as labour force into the new industries established in that region, such as the Ingenios (sugar refineries) from Tucumán, Salta y Jujuy. Either to record vanishing races or as testimony to the changes experienced by Native peoples in the process of becoming civilized, photographic expeditions were dispatched to the localities and scenes where the process was taking place. As a result, La Plata Museum became one of the repositories of the visual documents of a history that was not deeply analysed (…)

The Endangered Archives Programme in Spanish

Liberalism in the Americas Digital Archive

This is a unique scholarly resource of materials to help the UK and international academic community to trace the rise, consolidation and development of liberal ideology and practice in Latin America during the long nineteenth century. This has been achieved through the digitisation of key texts that shaped liberal thought and practice in the region since the late eighteenth century. Archival materials have been carefully selected – such as political pamphlets, judicial records, and political ephemera – to provide researchers, educators and policy makers around the world with the tools to develop historical studies that will enhance our understanding of the liberal tradition in Latin America.

The digital library was developed by the Institute for the Study of the Americas (now the Institute of Latin American Studies), School of Advanced Study, University of London. The project was managed by Dr Deborah Toner with research assistance from Dr Sarah Backhouse and consultancy advice from Dr Matthew Alan Hill and the University of London Computer Centre, which specialises in digital preservation. The resources that appear in this digital library were made available by, and digitised in collaboration with, the British Library, using materials from its extensive archives (…)
Working papers: Liberalism in the Americas

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