Archivo de la etiqueta: Latin America

Le prisme des émotions dans l’histoire du temps présent – Amérique latine Espagne

« L’utilité de toutes les passions ne consiste qu’en ce qu’elles fortifient et font durer en l’âme des pensées, lesquelles il est bon qu’elle conserve, et qui pourraient, sans cela, en être effacées »[1]. Mémoire et émotions s’égrainent d’une seule main, ce qui favorise certes le risque d’une histoire « compassionnelle », le péché d’empathie avec le témoin, mais ce qui fait aussi que pour l’historien du temps présent les émotions sont la « réalité saisissable »[2] d’une histoire incarnée. En effet, l’expression des affects à travers les manifestations du corps n’accompagnent pas seulement l’évocation du passé dont elles conservent la trace. Elles le convoquent en une intériorisation du souvenir qui confère une proximité à l’événement inscrit dans le passé. Elles colorent le prisme à travers lequel les agents du souvenir, chercheurs et porteurs de mémoire mêlés, construisent dans le présent leur relation au passé dans un espace public. Car à la croisée des enjeux de mémoire convergent « un passé qui ne passe pas »[3] et un présent qui l’interroge à l’aune de ses propres inquiétudes[4]. Lorsque dans les années 2000 la société espagnole se divise sur la question des fosses de la guerre civile et de l’inertie d’une symbolique franquiste dans la cité[5] ; lorsque les lieux et les moments commémoratifs de la guerre du Sentier Lumineux engendrent de nouvelles violences au Pérou ; lorsque les organisations et les élites amérindiennes s’organisent pour l’écriture d’une contre-histoire en Bolivie, au Chili, en Équateur ou que le régime chaviste au Venezuela transforme la figure de Simon Bolívar et le culte historique consensuel en un dogme politique, et que la Commission Vérité et Justice au Paraguay engage une véritable ingénieurie de l’histoire pour changer radicalement le rapport que la société entretient avec son passé autoritaire, les souvenirs mettent les corps en mouvement en raison certes des représentations du passé qui les habitent, mais en raison aussi de leur circulation dans le présent au regard que les uns et les autres se font des possibles à venir.

(…)

Cette immédiation entre le passé et le présent, dont les émotions constituent le prisme sensible, est l’objet de notre recherche. Le monde hispanique (Amérique latine et Espagne), au-delà des circulations transnationales qui intègrent les « passés à vif » à l’échelle de cette aire culturelle[10], est un laboratoire privilégié pour observer à travers les jeux d’acteurs la concurrence entre régimes d’historicité. La prégnance des régimes héroïques enracinés dans le XIXe siècle des fondateurs de la patrie et de la construction de l’État-national ainsi que dans les résistances indigènes à la conquête et sa martyrologie chrétienne reste forte, tandis qu’elle se heurte à la montée en puissance du temps des victimes et des reconfigurations présentistes mondialisés[11].

(…)

Le rapport que les sociétés entretiennent avec leur passé n’est pas seulement le fruit de l’invention d’une tradition, de pratiques mnémoniques et d’une discipline de recherche, il participe également de l’intuition. Elle prend forme en Amérique latine dans les tensions durables entre des « citadelles historiographiques » et les partisans d’une « contre-histoire », sans cesse revendiquée et renouvelée, de révisionnismes récurrents qui vont bien au-delà des simples conflits de mémoire. Pour beaucoup il s’agit de défendre une identité, dont l’estime de soi est enchâssée dans une représentation du passé qui remonte fréquemment à l’Indépendance (1810-1811), dont le Bicentenaire a été très opportunément célébré et récupéré par les gouvernements en place.

(…)

[1]. Descartes R., Les Passions de l’Âme, dans Œuvres et lettres (texte présenté par André Bridoux), Paris, Gallimard/Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1970, p. 730 [1649].

[2]. Boquet D. et P. Nagy, « Une histoire des émotions incarnées », Médiévales, n° 61, 2011, p. 5-24.

[3]. Selon la formule de Conan É. et H. Rousso, Vichy, un passé qui ne passé pas, Paris, Gallimard, 1996.

[4]. Capdevila L. et F. Langue (dir.), Entre mémoire collective et histoire officielle. L’histoire du temps présent en Amérique Latine, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2009.

[5]. Segura A., A. Mayayo, Q. Solé (éd.), Fosses comunes i simbologia franquista: ponències de les jornades, Barcelona, 9 i 10 d’octubre 2008, Catarroja, Editorial Afers, 2009.

[6]. Descartes R., Les Passions de l’Âme, op.cit, p. 715.

[7]. Camps V., El gobierno de las emociones, Barcelona, Herder Editorial, 2011.

[8]. Farge A., Effusion et tourment. Le récit des corps. Histoire du peuple au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. 15.

[9]. Berthier N., Sanchez-Biosca V., Retóricas del miedo. Imágenes de la Guerra Civil española, Madrid, Casa de Velázquez, 2012.

[10]. Pérotin-Dumon A. (dir.), Historizar el pasado vivo en América latina, http://www.historizarelpasadovivo.cl/es_home.html

[11]. Hartog F., Régimes d’historicité. Présentisme et expériences du temps, Paris, Seuil, 2003 ; Fassin D. et R. Rechtman, L’empire du traumatisme. Enquête sur la condition de victime, Paris, Flammarion, 2007 ; Ferro M., Le ressentiment dans l’histoire. Comprendre notre temps, Paris, Odile Jacob, 2007.

[12]. Capdevila L. et F. Langue (dir.), Entre mémoire collective et histoire officielle. op.cit.

INTRODUCTION  à Luc Capdevila, Frédérique Langue (coords.), Le passé des émotions. D’une histoire à vif Amérique Latine et Espagne, Rennes, PUR, 2014.

Pour accéder au texte complet, à la table des matières, aux présentations ouvrage et auteurs

Brazil Truth Commission Releases Report

Comissao Nacional da Verdade/Brazil Truth Commission Releases Report

brasil1Washington, DC, December 11, 2014 — Almost thirty years after the end of Brazil’s military dictatorship, the Comissao Nacional da Verdade [National Truth Commission] today released its long awaited report on human rights violations by the security forces between 1964 and 1985. The report, which took two-and-a-half years to complete and totals over 1000 pages, represents the first formal attempt by Brazil as a nation to record its repressive past and provide a detailed accounting of the system of repression, of the victims of human rights violations, as well as the identities of those who committed those crimes.
In contrast to the U.S. Senate report on torture released yesterday in Washington which redacted even the pseudonyms of CIA personnel who engaged in torture, the Brazilian report actually identifies over 375 perpetrators of human rights crimes by name.
The report contains detailed chapters on the structure and methods of the repression during the military era, including targeted violence against women and children. The commission identified over 400 individuals killed by the military, many of them “disappeared” as the military sought to hide its abuses. During its investigation, the Commission located and identified the remains of 33 of the disappeared; some 200 other victims remain missing.
The report also sheds significant light on Brazil’s role in the cross-border regional repression known as Operation Condor. In a chapter titled “International Connections: From Repressive Alliances in the Southern Cone to Operation Condor,” the Commission report details Brazil’s military ties to the coup in Chile, and support for the Pinochet regime, as well as identifies Argentine citizens captured and killed in Brazil as part of a Condor collaboration between the Southern Cone military regimes.
This report opens a Pandora’s box of historical and legal accountability for Brazilians. For now it provides a verdict of history, but eventually the evidence compiled by the commission’s investigation could lead to a judicial accounting. “The Truth Commission’s final report is a major step for human rights in Brazil,” according to Brown University scholar, James Green, “and the pursuit of justice for the victims of the state’s terror.” (…)
http://nsarchive.wordpress.com/2014/12/10/brazil-truth-commission-releases-report/
THE NATIONAL SECURITY ARCHIVE : www.nsarchive.org

Movimientos armados en México. Fuentes en línea

Movimientos armados en México. Recursos de información desde El Colegio de México
Este sitio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a integrar y difundir recursos de información sobre la violencia política en América Latina y el Caribe.
La colección que aquí se incluye, se refiere a la guerrilla y grupos armados mexicanos, consta de más de 450 documentos (entre otros, volantes, comunicados, notas de prensa, cartas, suplementos, planes y reglamentos) pertenecientes a un periodo de cuarenta y cinco años (de 1960 hasta 2005 entre aquellos que tienen una fecha que permite identificarlos).
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Principal recopiladora fue la Profesora Verónica Oikión, de El Colegio de Michoacán. Su trabajo complementado con materiales obtenidos durante la investigación que dio origen a la obra La transición en México. Una historia documental 1910-2010 de Sergio Aguayo Quezada (Fondo de Cultura Económica y El Colegio de México, 2010).
Los documentos incluidos en el sitio forman parte de las colecciones del Archivo General de la Nación y de Mandeville Special Collections Library University of California San Diego Armed Revolutionary Organizations of Mexico.
http://movimientosarmados.colmex.mx/
Información en: biblio2@colmex.mx

The British Library : ‘Faces drawn in the sand’: a rescue project of Native Peoples’ photographs stored at the Museum of La Plata, Argentina

The Endangered Archives Programme at the British Library is pleased to announce the addition of a new catalogue to its web pages. The catalogue gives details of material copied by the project EAP207: Faces drawn in the sand’: a rescue project of Native Peoples‘ photographs stored at the Museum of La Plata, Argentina – major project.
The collections stored at La Plata Museum provide a picture of pre-industrial societies of a wide area of South America during the late 19th – early 20th centuries. They include photographs on paper, albumens, and glass plate negatives. During the previous pilot project they were relocated to Archivo Histórico (Museo de La Plata) and are currently kept in good climatic conditions. The albums Boggiani, Bonaparte (Old and New World), and the Bolivian Collection represent objects used by ethnologists as visual data of distant Indian tribes. The Moreno Album contains images of F. P. Moreno’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, established in 1878. This album along with Calchaquí Album were presented at the Paris World Exhibition of 1878 and both contain very rare images (…)
La Plata Museum, Argentina , was established in 1884, dedicated to the study of American Man. It was the first institution of this kind in South America, resulting from the donation of several anthropological and archaeological collections gathered in the Argentinean interior during the 1870s. This Museum envisioned a continental scope: to achieve its goals it organised different strategies to collect objects that encompassed societies that, by those years, were perceived to be in the process of extinction. In the late 1870s and 1880s several campaigns against Native peoples from Patagonia and Chaco were carried out as governmental or private initiatives in order to erase savagery from the lands to be included into the market economy. Besides, indigenous peoples from Northwestern Argentina were incorporated as labour force into the new industries established in that region, such as the Ingenios (sugar refineries) from Tucumán, Salta y Jujuy. Either to record vanishing races or as testimony to the changes experienced by Native peoples in the process of becoming civilized, photographic expeditions were dispatched to the localities and scenes where the process was taking place. As a result, La Plata Museum became one of the repositories of the visual documents of a history that was not deeply analysed (…)

The Endangered Archives Programme in Spanish

Liberalism in the Americas Digital Archive

This is a unique scholarly resource of materials to help the UK and international academic community to trace the rise, consolidation and development of liberal ideology and practice in Latin America during the long nineteenth century. This has been achieved through the digitisation of key texts that shaped liberal thought and practice in the region since the late eighteenth century. Archival materials have been carefully selected – such as political pamphlets, judicial records, and political ephemera – to provide researchers, educators and policy makers around the world with the tools to develop historical studies that will enhance our understanding of the liberal tradition in Latin America.

The digital library was developed by the Institute for the Study of the Americas (now the Institute of Latin American Studies), School of Advanced Study, University of London. The project was managed by Dr Deborah Toner with research assistance from Dr Sarah Backhouse and consultancy advice from Dr Matthew Alan Hill and the University of London Computer Centre, which specialises in digital preservation. The resources that appear in this digital library were made available by, and digitised in collaboration with, the British Library, using materials from its extensive archives (…)

http://liberalism-in-americas.org
Working papers: Liberalism in the Americas

MOxLAD Base de Datos de Historia Económica de América Latina

La Base de Datos de Historia Económica de América Latina Montevideo-Oxford, MOxLAD por su sigla en inglés (Latin American Economic History Database), es un proyecto conjunto entre el Programa de Historia Económica y Social (PHES) de la Universidad de la República del Uruguay, en Montevideo, y dos instituciones de la Universidad de Oxford: el Centro de América Latina (Latin American Centre) y el Departamento de Desarrollo Internacional (Department of International Development).

El objetivo de este proyecto asociado es extender y renovar la base de datos conocida anteriormente como OxLAD y desarrollar actividades conexas a la construcción de la base de datos. La base de datos contiene series estadísticas de un amplio número de indicadores económicos y sociales que cubren veinte países de la región a lo largo del siglo XX. Así, los historiadores económicos y sociales de todo el mundo pueden acceder fácilmente a una base de datos sistemática en una única fuente en línea. Los datos presentados en MOxLAD se han recogido de forma de proporcionar una cobertura lo más completa posible, tratando de garantizar que las series de los distintos países tengan la mayor coherencia y comparabilidad en términos de definición, cobertura y valoración. El objetivo fue obtener una cobertura sistemática del siglo XX, pero se ampliará, tanto hacia atrás hasta 1870, como hacia adelante hasta el 2010 (…)

MOxLAD http://moxlad.fcs.edu.uy

Operation Condor on Trial: legal Proceedings in Latin American Rendition and Assassination Program open in Buenos Aires

OPERATION CONDOR ON TRIAL:
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS ON LATIN AMERICAN RENDITION AND ASSASSINATION PROGRAM OPEN IN BUENOS AIRES

National Security Archive Posts CIA, DIA and State Department Intelligence Reports Provided to Argentine Prosecutors
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 416
Posted – March 8, 2013
Edited by Carlos Osorio

Washington, D.C., March 8, 2013 – Former military officers from Argentina and Uruguay went on trial this week in Buenos Aires for their human rights abuses in Operation Condor, a cross-border conspiracy of dictatorships in the 1970s and 1980s to “eradicate ‘subversion,’ a word which increasingly translates into non-violent dissent from the left and center left,” according to declassified documents posted today by the National Security Archive ( www.nsarchive.org).

Today’s posting of documents and evidence provided by the Archive to Argentine prosecutors includes the first briefing report, from August 1976, to then-Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on the secret police collaboration in the Southern Cone to “find and kill” opponents of their military regimes.

“The documents are very useful in establishing a comprehensive analytical framework of what Operation Condor was,” said Pablo Enrique Ouvina, the lead prosecutor in the case.

Founded by the Pinochet regime in November 1975, Operation Condor was the codename for a formal Southern Cone collaboration that included transnational secret intelligence activities, kidnapping, torture, disappearance and assassination, according to the National Security Archive’s documentary evidence from U.S., Paraguayan, Argentine, and Chilean files.

Prominent victims of Condor include two former Uruguayan legislators and a former Bolivian president, Juan Torres, murdered in Buenos Aires, as well as former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier and his 26-year old American colleague, Ronni Moffitt, assassinated by a car bomb in downtown Washington D.C.

The historic trial charges 25 high-ranking military officials, including former Argentine presidents Jorge Videla and Reynaldo Bignone, with conspiracy to “kidnap, disappear, torture and kill” 171 opponents of the military dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in the 1970s and 1980s. Among the victims are approximately 80 Uruguayans, 50 Argentines, 20 Chileans and a dozen from Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador who were targeted by Condor operatives. The kidnapping and disappearance of two Cuban Consulate officials in Buenos Aires on August 9, 1976, is also part of the prosecution.

“Condor was a latter day rendition, torture and assassination program,” noted Carlos Osorio, who directs the Archive’s Southern Cone Documentation project. “Holding these officials accountable for the multinational crimes of Condor,” he said, “cannot help but set a precedent for more recent abuses of a similar nature.”

Besides Generals Videla and Bignone, those indicted included 22 Argentine military intelligence officers and agents. In preparation for the trial, prosecutors sought the extradition of several foreign high ranking officers from Chile and Paraguay among other Condor countries. The only foreigner sitting at the courtroom, however, is Uruguayan Army Major Manuel Cordero, charged with participating in death squads and torture at the infamous Orletti Motors secret detention center in Buenos Aires. He was extradited by Brazil where he was living.

Of the 171 Condor victims cited in the indictments, approximately forty-two survived and a number of them are expected to testify in court. One hundred twenty others were killed and/or disappeared.

DOCUMENTS

Chile – Oscars: Declassified Documents Tell History Behind Best Foreign Film Nomination, “No”

“No” Film
OSCARS: DECLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS TELL HISTORY BEHIND BEST FOREIGN FILM NOMINATION, “NO”
ONCE SECRET CIA, DEFENSE AND STATE DEPARTMENT RECORDS FILL IN GAPS IN CHILEAN FILM DEPICTING MEDIA CAMPAIGN TO OUST GENERAL AUGUSTO PINOCHET

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 413
Posted – February 22, 2013 Edited by Peter Kornluh

http://www.nsarchive.org

Washington, D.C., February 22, 2013 — Chilean ruler General Augusto Pinochet intended to use violence to annul the October 1988 plebiscite that ended his lengthy military dictatorship, according to declassified documents posted today by the National Security Archive in order to fill in the historical gaps of the Oscar-nominated film, “NO.”

With the Oscars approaching on February 24, the Archive posting includes formerly top secret records that provide new details about the history of the “Campaign of the NO” in Chile–the dynamic political movement that eventually led to Pinochet’s loss of the presidency. The documents include highly classified warnings from the U.S. military attache that Pinochet intended to use violence to sustain himself in power if the NO won the October 5, 1988, plebiscite; a CIA report on Pinochet’s “apoplectic” reaction to the vote; as well as private records relating to the voter registration drive that was critical to the electoral victory to remove Chile’s 15-year old military regime.

Nominated for best foreign film, “NO” has received widespread acclaim from movie reviewers. Writing in the New Yorker, critic Anthony Lane noted that “the title is a downer but the movie lifts you up;” he called “NO” “the best film ever made about Chilean plebiscites.” But like “Zero Dark Thirty,” “Argo,” and “Lincoln,” which also examine historical events, “NO” has been criticized for misrepresenting and omitting key elements of the history it depicts.

As the movie indicates, Pinochet’s ouster at the polls was an inspirational event, a rare victory of good over evil, brought about by Chileans for Chileans. As a historic event, it demands to be understood. The complexity of the story is not depicted on screen. But the fact that the movie is being recognized at the Oscars, and now being seen around the world, cannot help but draw attention to the fuller story of the Campaign of the NO, which is included in this dramatic documentation now available on the National Security Archive’s website.

THE DOCUMENTS

Document 1: State Department, “Preparations Accelerating for Plebiscite” August 3, 1988

Document 2: State Department, Confidential, “The Chilean Plebiscite: Sitrep 2,” August 12, 1988 (original missing p. 5)

Document 3: Greer, Margolis, Mitchell & Associates, “Campana para la Inscripcion en Los Registros Electorales” (Campaign for Electoral Registration) ca 1987

Document 4: Defense Intelligence Agency, Top Secret Zarf Umbra, Chile: Contingency Plans,” October 4, 1988

Document 5: State Department, “The Chilean Plebiscite, Sitrep 4,” October 6, 1988

Document 6: CIA, [Informant Report on Pinochet’s auto coup plan for the plebiscite] November 18, 1988

Document 7: Defense Intelligence Agency, Secret ExDis, “Chile: Plebiscite Goes Forward as Pinochet Apparently Loses,” October 6, 1988

Document 8: Defense Intelligence Agency: Secret, “Chilean Junta Meeting, the Night of the Plebiscite,” January 1, 1989

Document 9: State Department, Confidential, “The Chilean Plebiscite, Sitrep Eight,” October 7, 1988

Notas sobre Didi-Huberman

Sitio de alumnos del seminario de Didi-Huberman en la EHESS que ofrece, ordenado por curso, una lista de enlaces a pistas a las que refiere. Sobre el material accesible en internet, se busca dar forma a una suerte de bibliografia que interpreta dicho seminario. Algunos enlaces se vinculan al seminario, otros son las asociaciones realizadas por su autor.

AmSud : médiathèque latinoaméricaine

Un archivo digital de entrevistas filmadas y otros materiales ligados a la historia y antropologia latinoamericana. El material se encuentra "etiquetado" segun palabras claves y es posible realizar busquedas por periodo o area geografica.